Hu'owa menu bungaliyo

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Анто́н Па́влович Че́хов) pilotutu 29 Januari 1860 – yilate 15 Juli 1904 (Kalender Julian: pilotutu 17 Januari 1860 – yilate 2 Juli 1904) yito tawu ngota ahali moluladu silita limbu-limbu'o (cerpen) wawu naskah drama lonto Rusia. Tiyo he'akuwo lotawu daata lowali latunga lo'u moluladu silita fiksi limbuu-limbu'o to dunia. Woluwo mohelu 4 (wopato) ilomata klasik tuladiyo u hetanggula lotawu u molamahe da'a. Mohelu wopato drama uda'a le Chekhov; Burung Camar, Paman Vanya, Tiga Saudari, wawu Kebun Ceri—layito hepentasiyo ulangi to delomo pementasan-pementasan modern. Limbata lo'u mohetuto judul silita helimbu'a u kilaranganiliyo.

Anton Chekhov
Chekhov seated at a desk
Pilotutu Anton Pavlovich Chekhov
29 Januari 1860 [1]
Taganrog, Ekaterinoslav Governorate, Russian Empire
Yilate 15 Juli 1904
Badenweiler, Grand Duchy of Baden, German Empire
Resting place Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow
Occupation Physician, short story writer, playwright
Nationality Russian
Alma mater First Moscow State Medical University
Notable awards Pushkin Prize
Dile Olga Knipper

Pali lo'ulu'u

Tililahepa lo tuladiyo botiye heharaga lo ta hepolulade uweewo wawu odito olo kritikus.[2][3] Papanggala wole Henrik Ibsen wawu August Strindberg, Chekhov layito hetanggula lotawu tala ngota lo taapulu perintis to delomo modernisme bungaliyo lo teater. Chekhov botiya dokuteri mohhunema to tawu ngopohiya lo karir sastraliyo. Tiyo pernah lolo'iya, "Kedokteran yito dile'u ta sah, wawu sastra tilantahu'u".[4]

Bungaliyo te Chekhov botiya hemolulade silita alihu mo'otapu doyi, dabo to'u ambisi artistikliyo yilumayi'o, tiyo lohutu lohutu inovasi formal u lo'opongaru evolusi silita limbu'o moderen.[5] Tiyo ja lohile ma'apu ode taa hipobacawa tuladiyo wonu timongoliyo ma susa mongarati makusudu lotulade boyito. Tohuhamaliyo peran lo seniman yito mongohi yiyintu, diila molameto.[6]

TutumuloBoli'o

Masa kiki'oBoli'o

 
Bele pilotutuwa ole Anton Chekhov to Taganrog, Russia

Anton Chekhov pilotutu to Taganrog, pelabuhan kiki'o to desa kiki'o to biihu pentadu Azov, Rusia huliyaliyo to tanggal 29 Januari 1860. Tiyamoliyo Pavel Yegorovich Chekhov, wala'o bakasi lo wato lonto desa Olhovatka (Voronezh Governorate) hemodahangi to toko kelontong wolo dileliyo tawu lo Ukranina.[7] Te Anton botiye wala'a otoluliyo lonto mohutata mohelu 6 (wolomo). Tiilo le Checkhov tanggula ti Yevgeniya (Morozova) motota mohungguli lopiilu tomimbihu silita liyamoliyo hemoleleyangi modahangi lo kayini to ngope'e nga'amila lipu lo Rusia.[8][9][10] Bakat tilimihutayo lonto oli papa, dabo jiwa lonto oli mama, odito hetanggulo le Chekhov.[11] Chekhov hemosikola to Sekolah Yunani to Taganrog wawu Taganrog Gymnasium. To usia 15 tawunu tiyo ja yilumalilo sababu lodehu to ujian to delomo bahasa Yunani Kuno.[12] Tiyo olo hemomanyanyi to paduan suara liyamoliyo. Tiyo olo hemomanyanyi to biara Ortodoks Yunani to Taganrog wawu to paduan suara liyamoliyo. To tawunu 1876 tiyamo le Chekhov yilobaggurupu sababu lomangu bele bohu wawu ilakaliyo lo kontraktor tanggula te Mironov.[13] Tiyamoliyo lolahi ode Moskow alihu ja ulungoliyo to tutupa wawu ma lotitola to wala'iyo dulota ta mohuhula le Chekhov de'uwito yiyo Alexander wawu Nikolay, ta hipokuliyawa to Moskow. Timongoliyo ma lowali miisikini, tiiloliyo ma bolo hemodutola hilawo ma lo'antulu sababu u yilowali boyito.[14] Te Chekhob tilola ma'o limongoliyo alihu mopotali harata wawu mopo'ombuta pendidikan. 3 tawunu te Chekhov tola-tola to beleliyo wolo tawu ngota tanggula te Selivanov ta ma lotali bele lingoliyo. Tiyo hemomayari lohihilawo sikolaliyo monto doyi lo'u hemopobalajari les pribadi, hemohumoto wawu hemopotaliya lo uponula, hemolawo sketsa pendek ode surat kabar wawu karaja uweewoliyo ma'o.[15]

Tiyo topolawola timi'idu doyi u motapuliyo ode mongodula'a wawu mongowutatiyo to Moskow wolo tulade garapu u mo'ohiburu olimongoliyo.[15] To delomo wakutu boyito tiyo ma lobaca wawu longanalisa tulade Cervantes, Turgenev, Goncharov, wawu Schopenhauer,,[16][17] wawu ma loluadu drama komik tuwawu; Fatherless. To tawunu 1879, Chekhov ma lulus to sikolaliyo wawu ma lona'o ode mongodula'aliyo to Moskow. Tiyo ma tilolimoliyo to sekolah kedokteran I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University.[18]

Tulade bungaliyoBoli'o

 
Antn Chekhov (oloyihi) woli kakaliyo te Nikolai tawunu 1882
 
Ngongala'a le Chekhov wawu tamani tawunu 1890 (Hetihula, oloyihi ode olowala) Ivan, Alexander, Father; (to hungiyo) unknown friend, Lika Mizinova, Masha, Mother, Seryozha Kiselev; (to talu) Misha, Anton

To sa'ati botiya te Chekhov ma lodihu tanggung jawab momiyahe ngongala'aliyo.[19] Tiyo topolulade sketsa helimbu'a wawu garapu tomimbihu silita lo tawu daata lo Rusia, alihu mo'otapu doyi pobalanja ngohuyi-ngohuyi wawu pomayari kuliah. Ngohuntuwa tuladiyo hemomake tanggula tawu (samaran) odelo "Antosha Chekhonte" (Антоша Чехонте) wawu "Manusia tanpa Spleen" (Человек без селели). Tuladiyo botiya ma lo'o binta'a tangguliyo u mowali molulade sojarah satir to Rusia. To tawunu 1882 toyo hemoluladu ode Oskolki (Fragmen), tala tuwawu lo penerbit damango to'u boyito, ta ohu'uwoliyo te Nikolai Leykin.[20] Tuladiyo to masa botiya hamba'o bolo moloheto wonu popobandingiyolo wolo tulade uweewo. Tawunu 1884 te Chekhov maa lulus lowali dokuteri, u he'anggapuwoliyo karaja uda'a openu ngo'idi doyi motoduwomayi monteye wawu tiyo hemorawati tawu mosikini lo'u pereyi ja hepohamaliyo doyi.[21]

To tawunu 1884 wawu 1885, te Chekhov hemotembedu wawu motu'omayi loduhu, tawunu 1886 ngongotiyo ebe hemobuheto dabo hewanto'oliyo to ngongala'a wawu tamaniliyo.[11] Tiyo longaku ode ole Leykin, "Wa'u moohe mopolele ngongotu'u otawa lo tamani'u".[22] Tiyo layito topolulade ode majalah mingguan, hemo'otodumayi doyi debo hulinta sambe lowali loheyi ongongala'aliyo ode tambati mopiyohu.

Awwali lotwunu 1886 tiyo lo'otapu toduwo moluladu to majalah populer da'a to St. Petersburg, Novoye Vremya (New Times), ta ohu'uwoliyo jutawan Alexey Suvorin. Tiyo lo'otapu bayari pi'u-pi'u duluwo ngobarisi lotuladu wonu bandingiyo mota lo'u hebayariya lo Leykin's. Tiyo olo maa lotamaniya da'a wole Souvorin ngohilaya'o tutumuliyo.[23][24]

Diila lohihewo, te Chekhov maa lowali populer wawu maa he'imatowa lo ahali sastra. Dmitry Grigorovich (64 lotawunu) ta mollulade terkenal sa'ati boyito, lolawo tuladu ode'oliyo to'u maa lopobaca silita limbu'iyo "The Huntsman",[25] "Yi'o otutu o bakat, bakat u lopolayi'a olemu to ta'u lo taa hipolulade to generasi bohu. Tiyo maa longohi saran odele Chekhov alihu moboyu ngope'e wawu mululade ngo'idi wawu lebe motidu'ota ode kualitas sastra.

Te Chekhov lomalasi tulade boyito wawu lolameto, tiyo ilumonggingo "odelo ilato" wawu longaku, "Watiya hemoluladu silita latiya odelo wartawan hepolulade to catatan limongoliyo tomimbihu ta yilopobu – secara mekanis, setengah sadar, wawu jaboti paduli wolo taa mobaca meyambo watiya lohihilawo".[26] Totameta botiye odelo ma lo'orugi ole Chekhov, sababu tulade awwali lopotombangayi tiyo layito hemoluladu wolo u hati-hati, layito hemomoli'o mopo'opiyode tuladiyo.[27] Potunu le Grigorovich debo maa lo'odu'ota ambisi artistik ode oliyo to umuru dulo pula wolomo tawunu. To tawunu 1888, koleksi cerita pendek At Dusk (V Sumerkakh) lo'ohama hadiah Pushkin "untuk produksi sastra terbaik yang dibedakan dengan nilai seni yang tinggi.[28]

WuwalingaBoli'o

 
Portrait of Anton Chekhov
 
Chekhov wawu te Leo Tolstoy to Yalta, 1900

Iloda'a lo karaja mo'ongolo wawu jaboti sehati, to tawunu 1887 te Chekhov lontalengo ode Ukraina, u lo'omulaheyi oliyo ode ilogaga lo padengo.[29] Lohuwalingayi lonteto tiyo maa lolumula moluladu silita limbu'o odelo novella "The Steppe", u hetanggulaliyo agak aneh wawu orisinal da'a wawu pulitiyo ma'o diterbitkan to Severny Vestnik (The Northern Herald).[30] To delomo silita boyito, te Chekhov maa lopolayi'ayi wolo u hepikirangiyo lo ta lola'i ngota onggo buboto na'o-na'o lawo-lawode to padengo to'u tiyo yilawoliyo ode u molamingo monto beleliyo wawu sahabatiliyo. "The Steppe" ma hetanggula lotawu "kamus puisi Chekhov", wawu uwito tuwoto kemajuan uda'a oliyo, mopoluneto kualitas wawu publikasi uda'a to juranl sastra ngopohiya lo koran.[31]

To usim gugur 1887, manejer teater tanggula te Korsh longohi tugasi ole Chekhov moluladu drama, hasililiyo "Ivanov" u tiluladiyo 2 diminggu wawu maa pilopoyitohiyo to hulalo Nopember boyito.[32] Openu pengalaman botiye "mo'olonu'a" oliyo, odelo u tiluladiyo yilawo ode wutatiyo Alexander, yitohe botiye maa lowali populer wawu hepujiyo lotawu lowali ilomata orisinal, wawu hiburan odele Chekhov.[33]

Openu jaboti he'osadariyaliyo to'u boyito, dramaliyo odelo The Seagull (ditulis tahun 1895), Paman Vanya (ditulis tahun 1897), The Three Sisters (tiluladu tawunu 1900), dan The Cherry Orchard (tiluladu 1903) maa lowali tu'udu akali sehati ode media akting sambe dulahe botiya: upaya mopowali mayi wawu mengekspresikan "realisme" tomimbihu wololo tawu ngota otutu bertindak wawu heposilitawa wolo tawu weewo pata'o menterjemahkan ode panggung mopoluneto kondisi lo manusia u banari wolo hrapani alihu ta hipomilohe maa motolo'eela batanga limongoliyo wolo ma'analiyo u mowali manusia.

Filosofi botiye maa lowali duduta'o huhutu lo tawu ngohuntuwa to abad 20 sambe masa botiya, jabo hedudu'a lo ta to panggung drama akting. Mikhail Chekhov longanggapu te Ivanovic ta lowali u'unti to delomo layi'o intelektual wawu karir lowutatiyo te Anton.[11] To periode botiye yilumonggu i'imato tomimbihu te Chekhov u hetanggula lotawu "senjata Checkhov, prinsip tuwawu u mopoharusi timi'idu elemen to delomo narasi paralu wawu ja mowali tulo'alo, wawu uweewo u ja paralu yinggilolo..[34][35][36]

Yinggila nga'amila u diya'a wumbutaliyo wolo silita. Wonu yi'o lolanggulo to bab bungaliyo woluwo senjata ntaya-ntayanga to dingingo, bab oluwoliyo meyalo otoluliyo musi pomake. Wonu diila, yinggila ma'o, ja paralu uwito ntaya-ntayanga teeto.

— Anton Chekhov[36][37]

Wutate Chekhov, te Nikolay yilate to tawunu 1889 sababu panyaki TBC. Utiye maa lo'opongaru tuladiyo "A Dreary Story" u yilapata to hulalo September tawunu boyito, silita tomimbihu ta lola'i ngota diila lo'otamu ma'ana lotutumulo to pulito tutumuliyo.[38][39] Mikhail Chekhov, to'u boyito onggo hemongimato tutupa ode studi hukumliyo, maa lolulade olo depresi wawu kegelisahan le Chekhov, to delomo u hemololohe ma'ana lotutumuliyo lohihilawo, maa terobsesi wolo masa'ala pembaharuan lo tutupa.

SakhalinBoli'o

To tawunu 1890, te Chekhov lontalengo ode Rusia wawu Kartoga imbihu pobbutuwa,tambati lotawu hukumani to pulo Sakhalin, nona'e susa lowawamiya u ta'eya to kereta api, kereta kuda wawu kapal uap. Tiyo lotitola 3 hulalo hemowawancara limbata ngolihu lo tawu narapidana wawu tawu lolipu, pohutuliyo sensus. Tuladu to nona'oliyo 2 hula wawu ngopita u tiluladiyo ode wutatiyo buwa maa lowali tulade molamahu.[40] U hetombiluwoliyo tomimbihu Tomsk maa mowali terkenal.[41][42]

IlomataBoli'o

DramaBoli'o

  • That Worthless Fellow Platonov (Platonov yang Tidak Berguna) (l.k.1881) – satu babak
  • On the Harmful Effects of Tobacco (Bahaya Racun Tembakau) (1886, 1902)
  • Ivanov (1887) – empat babak
  • The Bear (1888) – (Orang Kasar) komedi satu babak
  • The Proposal atau A Marriage Proposal (Pinangan) (l.k.1888-1889) – satu babak
  • The Wedding (1889) (Pesta Perkawinan) – satu babak
  • The Wood Demon (Hantu Kayu) (1889) – komedi empat babak
  • The Seagull (Burung Camar) (1896)
  • Uncle Vanya (Paman Vanya) (1899–1900) – berdasarkan The Wood Demon
  • Three Sisters (Tiga Saudari) (1901)
  • The Cherry Orchard (Kebun Ceri) (1904)

Non FiksiBoli'o

  • Perjalanan ke Sakhalin (1895), termasuk:
  • Pulau Saghalien [atau Sakhalin] (1891–1895)
  • Melintasi Siberia
  • Surat-surat

Silita limbu-limbu'oBoli'o

Banyak dari cerita-cerita yang lebih awal ditulis dengan nama samaran "Antosha Chekhonte".

  • "Intrigues" (1879–1884) – sembilan cerita
  • "Late-Blooming Flowers" (1882)
  • "The Death of a Government Clerk" (1883) (difilmkan di Indonesia oleh Syuman Djaya dengan judul "Si Mamad")
  • "The Swedish Match" (1883)
  • "Lights" (1883–1888)
  • "Oysters" (1884)
  • "Perpetuum Mobile" (1884)
  • A Living Chronology (1885)
  • "Motley Stories" ("Pëstrye Rasskazy") (1886)
  • "Excellent People" (1886)
  • "Misery" (1886)
  • "The Princess" (1886)
  • "The Scholmaster" (1886)
  • "A Work of Art" (1886)
  • "Hydrophobia" (1886–1901)
  • "At Home" (1887)
  • "The Beggar" (1887)
  • "The Doctor" (1887)
  • "Enemies" (1887)
  • "The Examining Magistrate" (1887)
  • "Happiness" (1887)
  • "The Kiss" (1887)
  • "On Easter Eve" (1887)
  • "Typhus" (1887)
  • "Volodya" (1887)
  • "The Steppe" (1888) – memperoleh Penghargaan Pushkin
  • "An Attack of Nerves" (1888)
  • "An Awkward Business" (1888)
  • "The Beauties" (1888)
  • "The Swan Song" (1888)
  • "Sleepy" (1888)
  • "The Name-Day Party" (1888)
  • "A Boring Story" (1889)
  • "Gusev" (1890)
  • "The Horse Stealers" (1890)
  • "The Duel" (1891)
  • "Peasant Wives" (1891)
  • "Ward No 6" (1892)
  • "In Exile" (1892)
  • "The Grasshopper" (1892)
  • "Neighbours" (1892)
  • "Terror" (1892)
  • "My Wife" (1892)
  • "The Butterfly" (1892)
  • "The Two Volodyas" (1893)
  • "An Anonymous Story" (1893)
  • "The Black Monk" (1894)
  • "The Head Gardener's Story" (1894)
  • "Rothschild's Fiddle" (1894)
  • "The Student" (1894)
  • "The Teacher of Literature" (1894)
  • "A Woman's Kingdom" (1894)
  • "Three Years" (1895)
  • "Ariadne" (1895)
  • "Murder" (1895)
  • "The House with an Attic" (1896)
  • "My Life" (1896)
  • "Peasants" (1897)
  • "In the Cart" (1897)
  • "The Man in a Case", "Gooseberries", "About Love" – the 'Little Trilogy' (1898)
  • "Ionych" (1898)
  • "A Doctor's Visit" (1898)
  • "The New Villa" (1898)
  • "On Official Business" (1898)
  • "The Darling" (1899)
  • "The Lady with the Dog" (1899)
  • "At Christmas" (1899)
  • "In the Ravine" (1900)
  • "The Bishop" (1902)
  • "The Bet" (1889)
  • "Betrothed" atau "A Marriageable Girl" (1903)
  • "Agafya"
  • "The Pipe"
  • "The Lottery Ticket"
  • "Verochka"

NovelBoli'o

  • The Shooting Party (1884–1885)

ReferensiBoli'o

  1. Letter to G. I. Rossolimo, 11 October 1899. Letters of Anton Chekhov
  2. "Greatest short story writer who ever lived." Raymond Carver (in Rosamund Bartlett's introduction to About Love and Other Stories, XX); "Quite probably. the best short-story writer ever." A Chekhov Lexicon, by William Boyd, The Guardian, 3 July 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  3. "Stories ... which are among the supreme achievements in prose narrative." Vodka miniatures, belching and angry cats, George Steiner's review of The Undiscovered Chekhov, in The Observer, 13 May 2001. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  4. Letter to Alexei Suvorin, 11 September 1888. Letters of Anton Chekhov. On Wikiquote.
  5. "Chekhov is said to be the father of the modern short story". Malcolm 2004, hlm. 87; "He brought something new into literature." James Joyce, in Arthur Power, Conversations with James Joyce, Usborne Publishing Ltd, 1974, ISBN 978-0-86000-006-8, 57; "Tchehov's breach with the classical tradition is the most significant event in modern literature", John Middleton Murry, in Athenaeum, 8 April 1922, cited in Bartlett's introduction to About Love.
  6. "You are right in demanding that an artist should take an intelligent attitude to his work, but you confuse two things: solving a problem and stating a problem correctly. It is only the second that is obligatory for the artist." Letter to Suvorin, 27 October 1888. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  7. Rayfield 1997, hlm. 3–4: Egor Mikhailovich Chekhov and Efrosinia Emelianovna
  8. Payne, XVII.
  9. Simmons 1970, hlm. 18.
  10. Chekhov and Taganrog, Taganrog city website.
  11. 11,0 11,1 11,2 From the biographical sketch, adapted from a memoir by Chekhov's brother Mihail, which prefaces Constance Garnett's translation of Chekhov's letters, 1920.
  12. Bartlett, 4–5.
  13. Rayfield 1997, hlm. 31.
  14. Letter to cousin Mihail, 10 May 1877. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  15. 15,0 15,1 Payne, XX.
  16. Letter to brother Mihail, 1 July 1876. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  17. Simmons 1970, hlm. 26.
  18. Rayfield 1997, hlm. 69.
  19. Wood 2000, hlm. 79.
  20. Rayfield 1997, hlm. 91.
  21. Malcolm 2004, hlm. 26.
  22. Letter to N.A.Leykin, 6 April 1886. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  23. Rayfield 1997, hlm. 448–50
  24. In many ways, the right-wing Suvorin, whom Lenin later called "The running dog of the Tzar" (Payne, XXXV), was Chekhov's opposite; "Chekhov had to function like Suvorin's kidney, extracting the businessman's poisons."Wood 2000, hlm. 79
  25. The Huntsman.. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  26. Malcolm 2004, hlm. 32–3.
  27. Payne, XXIV.
  28. Simmons 1970, hlm. 160.
  29. name = "Masha 1887"
  30. Letter to Grigorovich, 12 January 1888. Quoted by Malcolm 2004, hlm. 137.
  31. "'The Steppe,' as Michael Finke suggests, is 'a sort of dictionary of Chekhov's poetics,' a kind of sample case of the concealed literary weapons Chekhov would deploy in his work to come." Malcolm 2004, hlm. 147.
  32. From the biographical sketch, adapted from a memoir by Chekhov's brother Mikhail, which prefaces Constance Garnett's translation of Chekhov's letters, 1920.
  33. Letter to brother Alexander, 20 November 1887. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  34. 36,0 36,1
  35. S. Shchukin, Memoirs (1911)
  36. "A Dreary Story.". Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  37. Simmons 1970, hlm. 186–91.
  38. Malcolm 2004, hlm. 129.
  39. Simmons 1970, hlm. 223.
  40. Rayfield 1997, hlm. 224.